Tubicen quidam in bello captivus detinebatur. Qui Hostes supplicabundus orabat ut non se interficerent, quandoquidem totum inermis esset et nullum eorum vulnerasset. Cui sic Hostes: “Quia tu sis inermis et pugnandi excors, ideo moriere, qui tubae cantu inimicos nostros ad pugnam concitaveris.”Tubicen quidam
= As usual, we meet one of the main characters here in the opening words of the fable.
in bello captivus detinebatur.
= We also learn of the trumpeter's situation: he was held (as a) captive.
Qui Hostes supplicabundus orabat
= The referent of the relative pronoun qui is tubicen in the previous sentence: qui (tubicen) orabat; the adjective modifies the subject, so you might want to translate it as an adverb, rather than an adjective.
ut non se interficerent,
= In classical Latin, you would expect a ne in this negative purpose clause, but the use of ut non can be used for negative purpose clauses in later Latin.
quandoquidem totum inermis esset
= The subjunctive, introduced by quandoquidem, gives causal background information; according to the trumpeter, this is why his life should be spared.
et nullum eorum vulnerasset.
= The pronoun eorum is a partitive genitive: nullum eorum, "none of them." The subjunctive verb continues the thoughts of the trumpeter, explaining why he thinks his life should be spared.
Cui sic Hostes:
= The referent of the relative pronoun cui is tubicen, the implied subject of orabat in the previous sentence, with an implied verb of speaking: cui (tubicini) hostes (inquiunt).
“Quia tu sis inermis
= The subjunctive, introduced by quia (“because”), gives causal background information; according to the enemy soldiers, this is why the trumpeter deserves to die. Note also the emphatic use of the personal pronoun tu in the nominative case; the subject is already clearly implied in the verb sis, so the pronoun is used purely for emphasis.
= The word excors means “without the brains for something, without the heart for something,” taking a genitive complement, the gerund pugnandi.
= The future active indicative moriere, “you will die,” is an alternate form of morieris.
= The reference of the relative pronoun is tu: "(you) who..."
tubae cantu inimicos nostros ad pugnam concitaveris.”
= The subjunctive gives further causal background information; according to the enemy soldiers, this is why the trumpeter must die.
Here is the illustration of the fable by Francis Barlow:
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